Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using A Room-air Natural Convection Loop

Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using A Room-air Natural Convection Loop

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Website or Online Data - 2006
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With the goal of extending the geographical market for passive solar water heaters northward, a room-air natural convection loop (NCL) was investigated for providing freeze protection for supply/return pipes carrying pressurized domestic water through unconditioned space. An NCL model was developed based upon balancing buoyancy and friction in the loop. Calibration factors (Cfric,Cht-trsf) were introduced to scale calculations and account for un-modeled details and correlation bias. An NCL prototype was constructed with 2", 4", and 8" diameters. Least-square regression on data from the 4" diameter duct yielded (Cfric,Cht-trsf) = (2.05, 1.8). The calibrated model was used to provide site-specific design guidance, and to estimate energy losses with and without a thermostatic control to stop flow whenever Tamb > 0 °C.
Publisher: Golden, CO : National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2006
Characteristics: 6 p. : digital, PDF file

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